Vestibular dysfunction strongly impairs hippocampus-dependent spatial memory performance and place cell function. However, the hippocampal encoding of vestibular information at the synaptic level, remains sparsely explored and controversial. We investigated changes in in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAr) density and distribution after bilateral vestibular lesions (BVL) in adult rats. At day 30 (D30) post-BVL, the LTP of the population spike recorded in the dentate gyrus (DG) was higher in BVL rats, for the entire 3 h of LTP recording, while no difference was observed in the fEPSP slope. However, there was an increase in EPSP–spike (E–S) potentiation in lesioned rats. NMDArs were upregulated at D7 and D30 predominantly within the DG and CA1. At D30, we observed a higher NMDAr density in the left hippocampus. NMDArs were overexpressed on both neurons and non-neuronal cells, suggesting a decrease of the entorhinal glutamatergic inputs to the hippocampus following BVL. The EPSP–spike (E–S) potentiation increase was consistent with the dorsal hippocampus NMDAr upregulation. Such an increase could reflect a non-specific enhancement of synaptic efficacy, leading to a disruption of memory encoding, and therefore might underlie the memory deficits previously reported in rats and humans following vestibular loss.