What is the role of gravity in the internal representations of action? Beyond the constraints of balance, does the gravity vector influence the action globally, up to the perception of our peers' movement? These issues have guided my thesis work. The originality of our approach was to place the execution and the perception of action in a "functional continuum" built around the internal representations of the action. To do this, the tool of choice, that is common to all three experiments presented here, is microgravity (0G). The experiments of this thesis showed that the internal representations of action are fed with graviceptive information to build and adapt constantly. However, under certain conditions such as short-term 0G, an order of priority appears. Indeed, the CNS is able to implement immediate and effective solutions, as we demonstrate it with the fast sensorial reweighting observed during a postural orientation task. However, a lag is observed in the recalibration of internal models based on sensory inputs severely disrupted. This is what we have shown through a protocol of motor imagery, showing a loss of isochrony between executed and imagined movements under 0G. Finally, we have demonstrated in subjects without any experience of microgravity, that the perception of human movement is effective even when it is performed in weightlessness, although different cerebral networks are involved.