Medullo-spinal CSF contacting neurones (CSF-cNs) located around the central canal are conserved in all vertebrates and suggested to be a novel sensory system intrinsic to the CNS. CSF-cNs receive GABAergic inhibitory synaptic inputs involving ionotropic GABAA receptors, but the contribution of metabotropic GABAB receptors (GABAB -Rs) has not yet been studied. Here, we indicate that CSF-cNs express functional GABAB -Rs that inhibit postsynaptic calcium channels but fail to activate inhibitory potassium channel of the Kir3-type. We further show that GABAB -Rs localise presynaptically on GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs contacting CSF-cNs, where they inhibit the release of GABA and glutamate. Our data are the first to address the function of GABAB -Rs in CSF-cNs and show that on the presynaptic side they exert a classical synaptic modulation whereas at the postsynaptic level they have an atypical action by modulating calcium signalling without inducing potassium-dependent inhibition.