Online Extraction and Single Trial Analysis of Regions Contributing to Erroneous Feedback Detection


  • Dyson Matthew
  • Thomas Eoin
  • Casini Laurence
  • Burle Boris


  • Classification
  • Motor imagery
  • Brain–computer interfaces
  • Error
  • Feedback
  • FRN
  • Inverse solution

document type



Understanding how the brain processes errors is an essential and active field of neuroscience. Real time extraction and analysis of error signals provide an innovative method of assessing how individuals perceive ongoing interactions without recourse to overt behaviour. This area of research is critical in modern Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) design, but may also open fruitful perspectives in cognitive neuroscience research. In this context, we sought to determine whether we can extract discriminatory error-related activity in the source space, online, and on a trial by trial basis from electroencephalography data recorded during motor imagery. Using a data driven approach, based on interpretable inverse solution algorithms, we assessed the extent to which automatically extracted error-related activity was physiologically and functionally interpretable according to performance monitoring literature. The applicability of inverse solution based methods for automatically extracting error signals, in the presence of noise generated by motor imagery, was validated by simulation. Representative regions of interest, outlining the primary generators contributing to classification, were found to correspond closely to networks involved in error detection and performance monitoring. We observed discriminative activity in non-frontal areas, demonstrating that areas outside of the medial frontal cortex can contribute to the classification of error feedback activity.

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