Controlling interference allows the selection of appropriate from irrelevant actions in order to achieve a goal. However, the question as to whether this process requires attentional resources remains. To clarify this issue, this thesis has been organized into two parts. The first part is based on a behavioral approach and focuses on the control of interference in situations of attentional restriction. The second part focuses on a neuropsychological approach examining the same control in individuals AD/HD.The thesis encompasses three studies based on the conflict paradigm. Additionally, methodological tools and analysis and distribution of electromyographic activity were used to separate the two components of interference i.e. the automatic triggering of inappropriate response and its inhibition.The first experimental contribution, consisting of four dual-task behavioral experiments, supported the idea that the mechanisms of inhibition are dependent on specific attentional resources. The second contribution highlights several interesting aspects of interference control in ADHD: a decline in interference control without a deficit in impulsivity or inhibition; that the interference effect could be a secondary manifestation of a general slowdown due to a lack of vigilance; and that the deficit of vigilance does not affect the ability to inhibit (unlike selective attention, as evidenced in the first part of the study). The third contribution demonstrates that adults with ADHD show no disorder of selective attention at least in the time domain but also that these individuals manifested a deficiency in alertness, thus confirming the hypothesis of the preceding contributions.