Deciphering the neural bases of cognitive processing by studying the behavior and brain acitivity

Next Seminar

17 Sep 2018

Serge Pinto (LPL, AMU - CNRS)

Can we improve speech by subthalamic nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease?

Among the repertoire of motor dysfunctions that charaterize Parkinson's disease (PD), dysarthria denotes a motor speech disorder particularly disabling for individuals with PD. Dysarthria in PD is generally described by a monotony of pitch and loudness, reduced stress, variable rate, imprecise consonants, and a breathy and harsh voice. Its responsiveness to treatments is often mitigated, and thus, the understanding and the management of dysarthria is still challenging for both researchers and clinicians. Notably, subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) enhances improvement of some motor components of speech production, while intelligibility decreases systematically after surgery. Results available often confirm the lower degree of speech improvement following STN stimulation compared with the global motor state, even demonstrating a potential exacerbation of speech deficits following stimulation. It has been suggested that PD dysarthria is associated with an altered recruitment of the principal brain motor regions (orofacial primary motor cortex, cerebellum) and an increased involvement of premotor and prefrontal cortices (notably the supplementary motor area). This pathological pattern does not parallel the compensatory strategy developed for segmentary motor tasks and may contribute to explain the frequent treatment discrepancies between limb and speech movements. This presentation aims at addressing the pathophysiology of dysarthria in PD, and discussing its characteristics from both neurophysiological and neurolinguistic points of view. Findings and issues related to the effects of STN-DBS on PD speech will also be adressed.

24 Sep 2018

Daniele Schon (Institut de neurosciences des Systèmes, INSERM AMU)

Changing scales for a changing science : Dynamiques des échelles de la science, une approche sémio-pheno-socio-economique

Quelles sont les échelles de la science ? Comment elles évoluent ? Quels sont les facteurs qui exercent une pression de sélection (à la Darwin) sur ces échelles ? Je donnerai quelques exemples pris de la littérature et de l’art pour montrer que les grandes échelles et les grands nombres ne sont pas nécessairement plus informative que les petites échelles et les petits nombres. Je montrerai ensuite quelques analyses quantitatives sur combien de temps il nous faut pour publier, combien nous publions, comment changent les supports de communication de la science, combien nous sommes, combien coûte la science, etc … Je ne suis pas un expert du domaine, mais je suis « tombé là-dedans » il y a quelques temps et je serai ravi de partager avec un publique de scientifiques avertis mes modestes connaissances et nombreuses questions qui émergent d’une telle réflexion. Suivra donc une discussion avec ceux qui ne seront pas pressé par temps.

10 Dec 2018

Raymond Reynolds (Univ. Birmingham, UK)

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